The kindergarten student will be immersed in a print-rich environment to develop oral language skills, phonological awareness, print awareness, vocabulary, comprehension, and an appreciation for literature. The reading of fiction and nonfiction selections will enable students to develop an awareness of print materials as sources of information and enjoyment. The kindergarten student will have the opportunity to use words that describe people, places, and events. The student will recognize and print letters of the alphabet, use the basic phonetic principles of identifying and writing beginning sounds, identify story elements, and communicate ideas through pictures and writing.
K.1 The student will demonstrate growth in the use of oral language.
- Listen to a variety of literary forms, including stories and poems.
- Participate in choral speaking and recite short poems, rhymes, songs, and stories with repeated patterns.
- Participate in creative dramatics.
- Begin to discriminate between spoken sentences, words, and syllables.
- Recognize rhyming words.
- Generate rhyming words in a rhyming pattern.
K.2 The student will use listening and speaking vocabularies.
- Use number words.
- Use words to describe/name people, places, and things.
- Use words to describe location, size, color, and shape.
- Use words to describe actions.
- Ask about words not understood.
- Follow one-step and two-step directions.
- Begin to ask how and why questions.
K.3 The student will build oral communication skills.
- Begin to follow implicit rules for conversation, including taking turns and staying on topic.
- Express ideas and needs in complete sentences.
- Begin to use voice level, phrasing, and intonation appropriate for language situation.
- Listen and speak in informal conversations with peers and adults.
- Begin to initiate conversations.
- Participate in discussions about books and specific topics.
K.4 The student will hear, say, and manipulate phonemes (small units of sound) of spoken language.
- Identify orally words that rhyme.
- Identify words orally according to shared beginning or ending sounds.
- Blend sounds orally to make words or syllables.
- Divide one-syllable words into sounds (phonemes).
- Divide words into syllables.
K.5 The student will understand how print is organized and read.
- Hold print materials in the correct position.
- Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
- Follow words from left to right and from top to bottom on a printed page.
- Match voice with print: syllables, words, and phrases.
K.6 The student will demonstrate an understanding that print makes sense.
- Explain that printed materials provide information.
- Identify common signs and logos.
- Read ten high-frequency words.
- Read and explain own writing and drawings.
K.7 The student will develop an understanding of basic phonetic principles.
- Identify and name the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
- Match consonant and short vowel sounds to appropriate letters.
- Identify beginning consonant sounds in single-syllable words.
K.8 The student will demonstrate comprehension of fiction and nonfiction.
- Use pictures to make predictions about content.
- Retell familiar stories, using beginning, middle, and end.
- Discuss characters, setting, and events.
- Use story language in discussions and retellings.
- Identify what an author does and what an illustrator does.
- Identify the topics of nonfiction selections.
K.9 The student will print the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet independently.
K.10 The student will print his/her first and last names.
K.11 The student will write to communicate ideas.
- Draw pictures and/or use letters and phonetically spelled words to write about experiences, stories, people, objects, or events.
- Write left to right and top to bottom.
K.12 The student will explore the uses of available technology for reading and writing.
The kindergarten standards stress the use of basic science skills to explore common materials, objects, and living things. Emphasis is placed on using the senses to gather information. Students are expected to develop skills in posing simple questions, measuring, sorting, classifying, and communicating information about the natural world. The science skills are an important focus as students learn about life processes and properties of familiar materials, such as magnets and water. Through phenomena including shadows, patterns of weather, and plant growth, students are introduced to the concept of change. The significance of natural resources and conservation is introduced in the kindergarten standards.
Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic
K.1 The student will conduct investigations in which
- basic properties of objects are identified by direct observation;
- observations are made from multiple positions to achieve different perspectives;
- objects are described both pictorially and verbally;
- a set of objects is sequenced according to size;
- a set of objects is separated into two groups based on a single physical attribute;
- nonstandard units are used to measure common objects;
- a question is developed from one or more observations;
- picture graphs are constructed using 10 or fewer units;
- an unseen member in a sequence of objects is predicted; and
- unusual or unexpected results in an activity are recognized.
K.2 Students will investigate and understand that humans have senses that allow one to seek, find, take in, and react or respond to information in order to learn about one’s surroundings. Key concepts include
- five senses and corresponding sensing organs (taste – tongue, touch – skin, smell – nose, hearing – ears, and sight – eyes); and
- sensory descriptors (sweet, sour, bitter, salty, rough/smooth, hard/soft, cold, warm, hot, loud/soft, high/low, bright/dull).
Force, Motion, and Energy
K.3 The student will investigate and understand that magnets have an effect on some materials, make some things move without touching them, and have useful applications. Key concepts include
- attraction/nonattraction, push/pull, attract/repel, and metal/nonmetal; and
- useful applications (refrigerator magnet, can opener, magnetized screwdriver, and magnetic games).
K.4 The student will investigate and understand that the position, motion, and physical properties of an object can be described. Key concepts include
- colors (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple), white, and black;
- shapes (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) and forms (flexible/stiff, straight/curved);
- textures (rough/smooth) and feel (hard/soft);
- relative size and weight (big/little, large/small, heavy/light, wide/thin, long/short); and
- position (over/under, in/out, above/below, left/right) and speed (fast/slow).
K.5 The student will investigate and understand that water flows and has properties that can be observed and tested. Key concepts include
- water occurs in different states (solid, liquid, gas);
- the natural flow of water is downhill; and
- some materials float in water, while others sink.
K.6 The student will investigate and understand basic needs and life processes of plants and animals. Key concepts include
- living things change as they grow, and they need food, water, and air to survive;
- plants and animals live and die (go through a life cycle); and
- offspring of plants and animals are similar but not identical to their parents and to one another.
Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
K.7 The student will investigate and understand that shadows occur when light is blocked by an object. Key concepts include
- shadows occur in nature when sunlight is blocked by an object; and
- shadows can be produced by blocking artificial light sources.
Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change
K.8 The student will investigate and understand simple patterns in his/her daily life. Key concepts include
- weather observations;
- the shapes and forms of many common natural objects including seeds, cones, and leaves;
- animal and plant growth; and
- home and school routines.
K.9 The student will investigate and understand that change occurs over time and rates may be fast or slow. Key concepts include
- natural and human-made things may change over time; and
- changes can be noted and measured.
K.10 The student will investigate and understand that materials can be reused, recycled, and conserved. Key concepts include
- materials and objects can be used over and over again;
- everyday materials can be recycled; and
- water and energy conservation at home and in school helps preserve resources for future use.
Computer Technology (K-2)
Basic Operations and Concepts
C/T K-2.1 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the nature and operation of technology systems.
- Identify the computer as a machine that helps people at school, work, and play.
- Use technology to demonstrate the ability to perform a variety of tasks; among them turning on and off a computer, starting and closing programs, saving work, creating folders, using pull-down menus, closing windows, dragging objects, and responding to commands.
C/T K-2.2 The student will demonstrate proficiency in the use of technology.
- Demonstrate the use of mouse, keyboard, printer, multimedia devices, and earphones.
- Use multimedia resources such as interactive books and software with graphical interfaces.
Social and Ethical Issues
C/T K-2.3 The student will practice responsible use of technology systems, information, and software.
- Know the school’s rules for using computers.
- Understand the importance of protecting personal information or passwords.
- Understand the basic principles of the ownership of ideas.
C/T K-2.4 The student will use technology responsibly.
- Demonstrate respect for the rights of others while using computers.
- Understand the responsible use of equipment and resources.
Technology Research Tools
C/T K-2.5 The student will use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.
- Identify information in various formats.
- Identify available sources of information.
The kindergarten standards place emphasis on developing the concept of number by counting; combining, sorting, and comparing sets of objects; recognizing and describing simple repeating patterns; and recognizing shapes and sizes of figures and objects. Students will investigate nonstandard measurement, collect data, and create graphs.
While learning mathematics, students will be actively engaged, using concrete materials and appropriate technologies such as calculators and computers. However, facility in the use of technology shall not be regarded as a substitute for a student’s understanding of quantitative concepts and relationships or for proficiency in basic computations.
Mathematics has its own language, and the acquisition of specialized vocabulary and language patterns is crucial to a student’s understanding and appreciation of the subject. Students should be encouraged to use correctly the concepts, skills, symbols, and vocabulary identified in the following set of standards.
Problem solving has been integrated throughout the six content strands. The development of problem-solving skills should be a major goal of the mathematics program at every grade level. Instruction in the process of problem solving will need to be integrated early and continuously into each student’s mathematics education. Students must be helped to develop a wide range of skills and strategies for solving a variety of problem types.
Number and Number Sense
K.1 The student, given two sets containing 10 or fewer concrete items, will identify and describe one set as having more, fewer, or the same number of members as the other set, using the concept of one-to-one correspondence.
K.2 The student, given a set containing 10 or fewer concrete items, will
- a) tell how many are in the set by counting the number of items orally;
- b) select the corresponding numeral from a given set; and
- c) write the numeral to tell how many are in the set.
K.3 The student, given an ordered set of three objects and/or pictures, will indicate the ordinal position of each item, first through third, and the ordered position of each item from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, and/or bottom-to-top.
K.4 The student will investigate and recognize patterns from counting by fives and tens to 30, using concrete objects and a calculator.
K.5 The student will count forward to 30 and backward from 10.
Computation and Estimation
K.6 The student will add and subtract whole numbers, using up to 10 concrete items.
K.7 The student will recognize a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter and will determine the value of a collection of pennies and/or nickels whose total value is 10 cents or less.
K.8 The student will identify the instruments used to measure length (ruler), weight (scale), time (clock: digital and analog; calendar: day, month, and season), and temperature (thermometer).
K.9 The student will tell time to the hour, using an analo
g or digital clock.
K.10 The student will compare two objects or events, using direct comparisons or nonstandard units of measure, according to one or more of the following attributes: length (shorter, longer), height (taller, shorter), weight (heavier, lighter), temperature (hotter, colder). Examples of nonstandard units include foot length, hand span, new pencil, paper clip, block.
K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle).
K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their position and orientation in space.
K.13 The student will compare the size (larger, smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle).
Probability and Statistics
K.14 The student will gather data relating to familiar experiences by counting and tallying.
K.15 The student will display objects and information, using objects graphs, pictorial graphs, and tables.
K.16 The student will investigate and describe the results of dropping a two-colored counter or using a multicolored spinner.
Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
K.17 The student will sort and classify objects according to similar attributes (size, shape, and color).
K.18 The student will identify, describe, and extend a repeating relationship (pattern) found in common objects, sounds, and movements.
Kindergarten HISTORY and
The standards for kindergarten students include an introduction to interesting Americans in history whose lives demonstrated the virtues of patriotism, courage, and kindness. During the course of their first year in school, students should learn basic concepts related to history, patriotism, national symbols, good citizenship, geographic location, economics, and the importance of following rules and respecting the rights and property of other people.
K.1 The student will recognize that history describes events and people of other times and places by
- a) identifying examples of past events in legends, stories, and historical accounts of Powhatan, Pocahontas, George Washington, Betsy Ross, and Abraham Lincoln;
- b) identifying the people and events honored by the holidays of Thanksgiving Day; Martin Luther King, Jr., Day; Presidents’ Day; and Independence Day (Fourth of July).
K.2 The student will describe everyday life in the present and in the past and begin to recognize that things change over time.
K.3 The student will describe the relative location of people, places, and things by using positional words, with emphasis on near/far, above/below, left/right, and behind/in front.
K.4 The student will use simple maps and globes to
- a) develop an awareness that a map is a drawing of a place to show where things are located and that a globe is a round model of the Earth;
- b) describe places referenced in stories and real-life situations;
- c) locate land and water features.
K.5 The student will develop an awareness that maps and globes
- a) show a view from above;
- b) show things in smaller size;
- c) show the position of objects.
K.6 The student will match simple descriptions of work that people do with the names of those jobs.
K.7 The student will
- a) recognize that people make choices because they cannot have everything they want;
- b) explain that people work to earn money to buy the things they want.
K.8 The student will demonstrate that being a good citizen involves
- a) taking turns and sharing;
- b) taking responsibility for certain classroom chores;
- c) taking care of personal belongings and respecting what belongs to others;
- d) following rules and understanding the consequence of breaking rules;
- e) practicing honesty, self-control, and kindness to others;
- f) participating in decision making in the classroom;
- g) participating successfully in group settings.
K.9 The student will recognize the American flag and the Pledge of Allegiance and know that the president is the leader of the United States.
KINDERGARTEN FINE ARTS
K.1 The student will sing songs and play instruments.
- Participate individually and in groups.
- Accompany songs and chants with body percussion and classroom instruments.
- Imitate two-pitch (sol-mi) patterns sung or played.
K.2 The student will perform rhythmic patterns that include sounds and silences.
K.3 The student will sing, play, or move at the appropriate time following a vocal/instrumental introduction.
K.4 The student will respond to music with movement.
- Match movement to rhythmic patterns.
- Employ large body movement.
- Employ locomotor and non-locomotor movements.
- Use movement to enhance music, stories, and poems.
- Perform dances and games from various cultures.
- Use the body to illustrate moods and contrasts in music.
K.5 The student will demonstrate the difference between a singing voice and a speaking voice.
K.6 The student will demonstrate steady beat.
- Use body percussion, instruments, and movement.
- Use children’s literature, chant, and song.
K.7 The student will create music through a variety of experiences.
- Use classroom instruments, body percussion, or movement.
- Use the voice in speech and song.
- Dramatize songs, stories, and poems.
Cultural Context and Music Theory
K.8 The student will recognize and demonstrate expressive qualities of music: fast/slow and loud/soft.
K.9 The student will identify classroom instruments by sight and sound.
K.10 The student will distinguish between tone colors.
- Identify voices and instruments.
- Identify men’s, women’s, and children’s voices.
Judgment and Criticism
K.11 The student will exhibit respect for the contributions of self and others in a music setting.
- Contribute to a group effort of making music.
- Contribute to a group effort of listening to music.
- Participate in music activities that involve sharing, taking turns, and other ways of demonstrating good citizenship.
K.12 The student will recognize the relationships between music and other disciplines.
Additional Information about these Standards: